There are over 60 million children in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a stable and growing economy, half of these children continue to live below the international poverty line. There are 19 million children under the age of five in Bangladesh; the chance of these children surviving to their fifth birthday has increased by 10 per cent in the last 20 years. Bangladesh also suffers from a range of governance problems that obstruct the realization of children’s rights. The Government’s structure is highly centralized, limiting local officials’ authority and flexibility to adapt services to local circumstances and demand. Achievements in the social sectors since the early 1990s have mainly expanded access.
In Bangladesh, children rarely have opportunities to express themselves, and when they do, adults tend not to take them seriously. In the middle of the childhood, when children are developing the capacity for independent opinions and participation in decision-making, parents often control them to work or study hard and unilaterally make important decisions concerning their lives. Initiatives in seeking the children’s views in the formulation of policies regarding child abuse and the commercial sex exploitation and trafficking of children have also been taken at national level. But the parents oppose their children from such initiative because they think speaking out publicly is inappropriate, particularly for girls. The ailment of children with disabilities also reflects the inequalities in the society of themselves and their caregivers.
- Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of the child marriage in the world with 66% of women (aged 20-24) married before turned 18
- 13 % of children are involved in child labor. Child laborers are frequently denied an education and are vulnerable to violence and abuse.
- Bangladesh has one of the lowest rates of birth registration in the world. This makes it difficult to protect children from trafficking, child labor and child marriage
- Only 80 % of students enrolled in grade one complete primary school
- High drop-out rates and poor quality teaching and learning are serious problems for primary schools
- Only 46 % of boys and 53 per cent of girls attend secondary school
Health and nutrition
- Neonatal death and maternal mortality rates remain high, primarily because most deliveries take place at home without access to proper medical care
- Health facilities lack qualified staff and suffer from shortages of supplies
- Under-nutrition contributes to child mortality. 22 % of infants are born with low birth weight. Up to 46 % f children under-five are underweight
- Drowning and injury is the leading cause of death among children older than one year
- Major prevention efforts are needed to keep HIV prevalence rates low
Water and sanitation
- Only 53 % of the population use improved sanitation facilities
- Only 80 % of the population has access to safe drinking water, primarily because of naturally occurring arsenic contamination of groundwater in some areas
- Safe hygiene practices, especially proper hand washing remain a challenge in the fight against disease
Emergencies and conflict
- Development is hampered by annual floods and other natural disasters, including cyclones, tornados and earthquakes
- Avian influenza continues to threaten lives and livelihoods in Bangladesh
- Low-lying Bangladesh is extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change
- The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in south-eastern Bangladesh, where ethnic minorities make up half the population, have suffered a slower development rate than the national average, due primarily to a history of civil conflict and the difficult terrain
- The health and wellbeing of Rohingya refugee children, whose families fled from Myanmar to the south-eastern part of Bangladesh following internal conflict, remains a concern